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Principle Of Operation And Possible Applications Of Linear Motors

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Principle Of Operation And Possible Applications Of Linear Motors
Principle Of Operation And Possible Applications Of Linear Motors

Video: Principle Of Operation And Possible Applications Of Linear Motors

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Video: Application, Working Principle and Structure of Linear actuator 2023, January

In many applications, feed forces are generated by an electric motor and converted from a rotary to a translatory movement by means of a gearbox - the movement is therefore brought about indirectly. In contrast, linear motors make it possible to directly generate a translatory movement.

Linear motors are based on the same principle of operation as three-phase motors, however the electrical excitation windings (stator) arranged in a circle with the three-phase motor are arranged on a level path in the case of linear motors, ie the three-phase motor is “developed” on the level.

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The rotor, which is set in rotation in the three-phase motor, is pulled by the linearly moving magnetic field over the travel distance in the linear motor. The required distance between the rotor and the linear winding can be ensured, for example, by means of linear guideways, air bearings or by electromagnetically controlled levitation.

Application possibilities en masse

In addition to the applications already mentioned, due to their design, linear motors are also suitable for other areas of application. Because they contain fewer friction parts than conventional drive solutions, they are more suitable for use in clean room applications, for example. Further application examples include applications in plastics processing, manufacturing automation and material flow technology.

Powerful linear motor components with many features

The linear technology specialist Hiwin has three series of iron-based synchronous linear motors in its range. The LMS series is optimized for positioning axes with dynamic point-to-point movement. The LMF series offers UL-certified motors with connection options for water cooling. Thanks to the extremely low cogging force with high forces, it is particularly suitable for use in machine tools and large positioning systems.

These motors consist of a primary part (forcer) with a wound laminated core and a secondary part with permanent magnets (stator). By combining several stators, travel lengths of any length can be realized.

The LMT series has a similar structure, with the magnetic attraction being canceled out thanks to the arrangement of the forcer between two stators. This relieves the load on the guide rail and achieves a high force density with a relatively short carriage.

Thanks to their ironless primary parts, LMC linear motors are light and dynamic and thus ensure good synchronization and high speed consistency. Its U-shaped stator consists of a permanent magnet. They are particularly suitable for applications such as scanners, optical inspection systems or applications in microsystem technology. Other advantages include a low overall height and the option of using several forcers on one stator.

Complete linear technology solutions for the designer

In addition to linear motor components, Hiwin also offers complete, ready-to-connect positioning systems including guide, drive and position measuring system with a wide selection of linear motor axes. These package solutions enable users to simplify project planning, assembly and commissioning, since the individual components are already coordinated with one another.

The Hiwin scope of delivery also includes standardized multi-axis systems (as gantry or cross table versions) as well as customer-specific special designs. Hiwin linear motor axes are equipped with pre-assembled plugs and an energy chain and can be supplied with iron-bearing or ironless linear motors.

The linear motor axes are particularly suitable for handling and automation tasks in which high accuracy and dynamics are required, as well as for microsystem technology applications and the assembly and inspection of components. The systems are available with or without a drive amplifier. They reach speeds of up to 5 m / s and a maximum acceleration of 100 m / s²; the peak force can be selected between 75 and 5,000 N.

Application example: Linear motor axes set laser cutting systems in motion

The Hans von der Heyde company offers laser systems for demanding applications that guarantee maximum flexibility and sharpness. The LC Hydra 300, for example, which is optionally controlled by a two- or three-axis CNC system, can cut, perforate or mark plastics, metals and non-metallic materials. The system, which is operated by means of a 10 “touch panel, has a sag control for controlled feeding and for speed control of the material.

Two laser heads attached to a feed unit master even complex contours at high accelerations. Optimal precision is guaranteed by highly dynamic, servo-controlled linear motor axes.

The right thrust at 40 m / s²

The integrated linear technology comes from the Offenbach linear technology expert Hiwin, who delivers all systems pre-assembled according to customer requirements for the respective system. In the application case, the axes are based on the types LMX 1L S23 or S27, which are particularly suitable for use as a cross table and for applications with high demands on the continuous force. They achieve a maximum speed of 4 m / s and an acceleration of up to 40 m / s² - this enables fast movements and a high repeatability.

Drive technology - everything from a single source

The linear motor axes are constructed in accordance with the Hiwin principle of basically supplying drive technology from a single source. Christoph Schultz, Hiwin sales manager for the Northern Germany sales area, explains: “Where mechanics and electricians used to look for each other to cause malfunctions, we designed drive technology as a complete system. It is not the customer who assembles the individual parts into subsystems, but the systems come from us in a function-tested manner. This enables our customers to concentrate on their end product. The basis for this is our highly efficient production of the components."

"We benefit from this as users," adds Ludger Tälkers, Managing Director at Hans von der Heyde. “Hiwin sales engineers and technicians also support us in developing the optimal solution for the respective application. For series machine builders like us, this is a key criterion when deciding on the drive technology supplier."

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