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Video: Gild 2: Poliment
2023 Author: Hannah Pearcy | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 11:39
Poliment gold plating is the noblest and most traditional type of gold plating and requires great experience.
The most common application is found in Christian figures and elaborate picture frames. Poliment gold plating is a really noble, but also technically very complex technique. It is only used indoors. The result is matt or glossy, solid-looking surfaces. Basically, it is possible on absorbent substrates such as medium-pored, solid types of wood, chipboard and MDF boards, plaster or stucco. They must be absorbent, dry, free of dust and grease before the first step. Smooth surfaces, such as those found in MDF or chipboard, are roughened. Poliment gold plating is created in several steps. It begins with the application of the glue potions, followed by the construction of the chalk ground. The poliment serves as the direct carrier of the gold leaf.
The glue potions
The glue potions have the important function of connecting the workpiece to be gilded with the subsequent primer made of chalk. It must be adapted to the absorbency of the workpiece to be machined. Today glue barley, glue pearls or glue grits are used to produce the glue. Good quality can be recognized by the brightness and swelling behavior of the raw material. So-called glutin glues are used. These are water-soluble glues that are made from animal waste and are named after the starting product (skin glue, bone glue, fish glue).
It is best to apply the glue with the appropriate amount of cold, distilled water in a clean glass. During the swelling process, which for example takes about three hours for pearl barley, the glue should be stirred from time to time. Then it is heated in a water bath, but not to more than 50 degrees Celsius, otherwise it loses its binding power. Because of the heating process, glutin glues are also known as warm glues.
An optimally set glue pot, a well-prepared workpiece, a constant working temperature and a clean workplace are basic requirements for the job. The glue potions must be applied warm. The application with a bristle brush should be done quickly, because the potions lose their thin liquid and thus their depth of penetration when they cool down. It is rubbed into the workpiece with a light massage and must be completely absorbed by the surface. No puddles!
The chalk foundation
After the workpiece has dried, chalk ground can now be applied in several layers, usually a mixture of different types of chalk, bound in warm glue. The chalk mixture results from which technique of decoration and gilding should be used. The basic order is carried out in three successive steps: dabbing, rubbing and priming. Depending on the type of processing and workpiece, Karin Havlicek recommends appropriate priming orders. For a smooth frame profile, dab twice, rub twice and prime twice. When dabbing, the lukewarm, relatively viscous chalk base is massaged onto the workpiece with a round bristle brush and then dabbed. It is important not to apply the chalk base too thickly and to massage the material well into the surface. The dabbing creates an enlarged surface that offers a good anchorage option for the subsequent second application of primer.
So-called rubbing follows the dabbing. The hand-warm chalk ground, diluted with glue potions and water, is applied with a long-haired bristle brush. The brush always remains in contact with the surface and it is created by uniformly wavy brush strokes - the chalk base must remain so that you can see the brush strokes - a lively surface, which in turn forms good chalk base connections to the next primer layer.
The third and last layer of primer is made with the ground, a chalk ground also diluted with glue potions and water. The application is carried out with a soft, long-haired bristle or hair brush "wet in wet". The workpiece is coated with the largest possible amount of chalk in the brush. On a frame, you start in the middle and then pull the bottom smoothly outwards. The gold master Karin Havlicek gives in this connection the tip that the flow behavior can be optimized with an additional shot of commercial alcohol (approx. Five percent).
In summary, when setting up the chalk primer, it can be seen that the basic application from layer to layer is thinner, the glue concentration is lower and the liquid content is higher. The workpiece must dry well between all operations. Once the priming is complete, further processing can begin.
A very fine, smooth, evenly absorbent surface is achieved by sanding the primer layers. Grinding dust must be carefully removed, if there are folds or on the underside it may have to be extracted. Any traces of hand fat on the chalk surface can be removed with a soft cotton cloth moistened with ethanol. In the subsequent polishing, absolute cleanliness at the workplace is a basic requirement. Karin Havlicek recommends a mixture of poliment glue (here edible gelatin) and bolus (ground clay, available from gold leaf manufacturers) for the white ground chalk surface described. The poliment prepared in advance is heated (not above 50 degrees Celsius) and applied lukewarm. The classic colors of the poliment for shiny gold-plating with yellow gold are yellow and red. The structure is usually made with two layers of yellow and two layers of red poliment. The glue consistency of the yellow poliment should be stronger than that of the red.
The workpiece must dry well at room temperature between the poliment orders. The time required for this is approx. 30 minutes and must not be shortened by blow-drying, otherwise the bolus will become brittle. After the poliment application, the surface must dry well and then brushed with a special brush. This way, the direct underlay of the gold leaf becomes fine and dense and the nets that follow it do not dry out as quickly.
The perfect poliment gilding requires years of practice. Karin Havlicek always recommends processing a sample in parallel when gilding. A bright, clean workplace is important for the success of the gilding process. A humidity of approx. 60 percent can be generated with the help of a kettle. Another measure to prevent the applied nets from drying too quickly. The necessary tools such as the gilding pillow, the appropriate shooter and the gilding knife must be ready. In a clean glass, mix the nets from four parts of distilled water and one part of alcohol. Because alcohol evaporates, the nets cannot be stored for a long time.
The gold leaf is placed on the well wetted area. So that the nets can run off, a frame should be slightly inclined, e.g. B. with a styrofoam block. Wooden figures are worked from top to bottom so that the nets do not flow into the unpolished gold. The applied netting activates the glue contained in the poliment and weakly swells it. The gold leaves are picked up in the middle with the shooter. The hair trimmings made from the finest squirrel hair can be charged electrostatically on the cheek. The area to be gilded must be wetted and the gold leaf is placed on the moist area. The path from the pillow to the surface should be as short as possible. This step is called shooting because it only takes a fraction of a second. For a harmonious result,If possible, the leaflets must be placed with the same excess, which requires planning the procedure in advance.
After the nets have dried, the nicest part of the work comes. The gold leaf, which still looks matt, is polished to a high gloss with an agate stone. The process is complete when a uniformly shiny surface has been created. If all work steps have been carried out carefully, a solid-looking surface is created, which always amazes the viewer.
The rubbing through
Beautiful effects can be achieved by rubbing through. A fine cotton cloth moistened with alcohol is passed over the surface with light pressure, for example in the longitudinal direction of the profile. If this does not lead to the desired effect, fine pumice flour can be used as an additional aid. This partially makes the bolus color visible again. You can also rub through with other aids such as steel wool, scotch sponges or wire brushes, depending on the desired effect.
For matt gold plating, the same procedure is used for gloss gold plating until the second application of the yellow poliment. In addition, a third layer of yellow poliment can be applied. Then the glue is extinguished (three parts poliment glue, one part distilled water) and, after drying, shot with gold leaf as described above. After drying, the gold can be pressed down with a soft brush and is covered with pure nets - also known as glue. If the gold is almost dry, it is systematically pressed against the direction of the fire with a soft calfskin.
As a tip, Karin Havlicek states in her book that she should add a little yellow bolus or iron oxide yellow to the Niederleimer. This results in a minimally different, unobtrusive color tone and makes the gold appear even more matt due to the clouding of the solution by the pigment.
Susanne Wierse Source: Malerblatt 02/2011Poliment gilding Apply the glue potions. Poliment gilding dabbing on the chalk base. Poliment gilding rubbing the chalk base. Poliment gilding Prime with chalk ground. Poliment gilding peeling off the sludge. Poliment gilding Order of the red poliment. Poliment gold plating Remove the last particles with sandpaper. Poliment gilding Brushes the poliment. Poliment gilding The heights and the gold parts are highlighted red. Poliment gilding Shoot the miter. Poliment gilding The gold leaf is attracted to the wetted surface and only needs a fraction of a second from the brush to the surface. Poliment gilding Polishing the gold surface with an agate. Photos: Karin Havlicek
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